If you've been on the internet lately, you might've heard that you should be worried about how Bluetooth headphones, such as Apple's $250 AirPods Pro, are affecting your risk of developing cancer.
The short answer: Everybody, calm down. There's nothing especially harmful about Bluetooth radiation compared with other electronic devices. Still, like many of the other electronics that surround us, scientists can't say for sure this wireless technology is 100% harm-free.
The hubbub stems largely from a Medium blog post that came out earlier this year. The post cites Jerry Phillips, a biochemist who has studied DNA damage from electromagnetic fields. His research suggests it's possible, but not certain, that electromagnetic-field activity might be messing with human DNA in a harmful way and that people should limit their exposure as a result.
"My concern for AirPods is that their placement in the ear canal exposes tissues in the head to relatively high levels of radio-frequency radiation," he said.
There's no conclusive evidence that AirPods Pro or other Bluetooth headsets are dangerous
There's really no evidence that radio-frequency (RF) radiation can cause brain cancer or noncancerous brain tumors in people.
The author of the post also said that, in 2015, a group of more than 200 international scientists sent an "appeal" to the United Nations and the World Health Organization "expressing 'serious concern' about the non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF)" that is emitted by Bluetooth devices, such as AirPods.
That's true, but the letter in question didn't specifically mention Bluetooth devices or headphones.
The scientists behind that letter are concerned about all kinds of electronics that emit nonionizing electromagnetic fields — the energy waves that travel at the speed of light in many electronics, including cellphones, WiFi devices, smart meters, baby monitors, and broadcast antennas
"EMF Scientists have serious concerns regarding the ubiquitous and increasing exposure to radiation from wireless devices and antennas from all sources, including the pulsed digital signals Bluetooth transmits," Elizabeth Kelley, the director of the International EMF Scientist Appeal, told Business Insider in an email.
However, most other scientists still hesitate to say there is conclusive evidence that the small doses of radiation from cellphones and Bluetooth headsets are dangerous.
"They don't have enough energy to cause cancer by directly damaging the DNA inside cells," according to the American Cancer Society.
The radio waves of electric and magnetic energy that radiate from cellphones, radios, and other types of wireless technology, such as Bluetooth, are different from stronger types of radiation we're exposed to, including X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun, which can break the chemical bonds in DNA.
In fact, as the California Department of Public Health has said, holding a cellphone up to your face emits much more RF energy than Bluetooth headsets, such as AirPods.(AirPods Pro use the same type of Bluetooth technology that's in regular AirPods. The new "pro" noise-cancelling function does not rely on any radio-frequency radiation. Instead, the new AirPods create their own sound waves which cancel out other noises.)
There's evidence that cellphone radiation can be harmful to rats but not humans
Scientific studies to date don't suggest this kind of phone radiation is harmful to humans in the way that bigger doses of radiation from X-rays or solar UV rays are.
But the same isn't true for rats. The US National Toxicology Programhas found "clear evidence" that male rat exposure to extensive daily cellphone radiation is linked to more heart tumors, as well as "some evidence" that it's linked to more brain tumors. They can't say the same for female rats, or for mice (both male and female)
As scientists have found many times before, just because something happens in lab rats doesn't mean the same will happen in humans. It's tough to know if the dose of radiation from a cellphone that humans are exposed to, day in and day out, is doing people any harm.
The evidence we have so far isn't convincing. One 10-year study across 13 countries that the International Agency for Research on Cancer conducted on cellphone-radiation risks concluded that there's no increased risk of brain tumors in average cellphone users, but those scientists cautioned that more research is needed on some of the most intense phone users. (Again, the dose of radiation from Bluetooth devices is lower than from a cellphone.)
If you are worried about radiation risks, Kelley recommends swapping out Bluetooth headphones for wired headphones. Even that technique leaves only a few feet of space between your brain and the RF radiation from your cellphone.
Whether you use AirPods, or any other kind of audio-listening device, it's probably best to spend more time worrying about moderating volume.
There, the science is more conclusive. Constant, repeated exposure to loud noises can lead to noncancerous acoustic neuroma tumors that cause hearing loss, as well as constant ringing in the ears called tinnitus. If that happens, you might have to put a different kind of wireless technology into your ears. It's called a hearing aid.